News: Full list of 2018 Churchill Fellows

Published: 9 Mar 2018

News: Full list of 2018 Churchill Fellows

Today we announce 150 new Churchill Fellows. Over the next 12 months, they will travel the world and research cutting-edge solutions to important topical issues.

Read more about the announcement

See the full list of Churchill Fellows below.

Craft and Design Education Enterprise Environment, Conservation and Sustainable Living
Health and Wellbeing Horticulture Mental Health Migration
Social and Affordable Housing Nursing and Allied Health Professions Science, Technology and Innovation Supporting Vulnerable Children following Bereavement
Young People (Aged 18-25) Open    

Craft and Design

This category is supported by the British Council.

  • Paris Andrew, a violin maker from London, who will be travelling to Italy to learn from master violin makers.
  • Jacob Willson, a planner and urban designer from London, who will be travelling to Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA to investigate zonal planning and its effect on design quality and affordability of housing.
  • Pete Moorhouse, an artist educator from Bristol, who will be travelling to Finland, New Zealand, Sweden and the USA to research best practice in woodwork in early childhood education. Pete's Fellowship is supported by The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation.
  • Katie Surridge, an artist and blacksmith from London, who will be travelling to Ireland and Japan to study traditional methods of producing iron by smelting ore.
  • Jack Waygood, a blacksmith from Blakeney, Somerset, who will be travelling to France and Germany to experience life as a journeyman blacksmith.
  • Joseph Bray, an undergraduate course leader from Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, who will be travelling to Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden and the USA to explore support for graduates to become skilled craftspeople and furniture makers.
  • Jack Sardeson, an architecture and neurodegeneration researcher from Ewerby, Lincolnshire, who will be travelling to Japan to investigate how urban design can create dementia-friendly communities.
  • Will Henley, an architect from London, who will be travelling to Denmark, Japan and South Korea to study how urban infrastructure can increase wellbeing.
  • Sara Choudhrey, an artist and researcher from London, who will be travelling to Portugal and Spain to study the decorative arts of the Mudéjar.
  • Joseph Conteh, an architect from London, who will be travelling to Nigeria to document the work of architect and professor Demas Nwoko on sustainable housing.

Education

  • Alice Stott, a secondary school oracy teacher from London, who will be travelling to the USA to study alternative approaches to oracy. Alice's Fellowship is supported by The Eranda Rothschild Foundation.
  • Andrew Whitaker, a senior school leader from Leeds, who will be travelling to the USA to study approaches to education as a catalyst for community transformation.
  • Fiona Ramsay, a charity worker from London, who will be travelling to Colombia to research Escuela Nueva, a teaching strategy aimed at providing culturally relevant education.
  • Katy Theobald, an education researcher from London, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and Singapore to research development of school leadership equipped for the 21st century.
  • Jim McCormick, a policy worker from Glasgow, who will be travelling to Canada, New Zealand and the USA to study mentoring programmes for disadvantaged school children.
  • Robert Brooks, an Educational Psychologist from Coleford, Gloucestershire, who will be travelling to Canada to investigate the role of educational psychologists in supporting children with additional learning needs.
  • Patricia Donald, an ICT worker from Belfast, who will be travelling to Australia and Japan to explore approaches to encouraging older people to use the internet.
  • Tara Flood, a campaigner for inclusive education from London, who will be travelling to Canada and Finland to study approaches to including disabled children in mainstream education.
  • Nyasha Weinberg, a researcher from London, who will be travelling to Argentina, Brazil and the USA to explore approaches to adult retraining.
  • Elizabeth Adelodun, a neuroscientist from London, who will be travelling to the USA to investigate mentoring programmes for university students.

Enterprise

This category is supported by the Rank Foundation.

  • Mark Heasman, a charity chief executive from Colchester, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA to research ways in which enterprise can enable charities to become more sustainable.
  • Chris Bolton, from Ponytclun, South Wales, and Good Practice Manager at the Wales Audit Office, who will be travelling to Spain and the USA to study large-scale cooperatives delivering social good.
  • David Morgan, a social enterprise worker from Bolton, who will be travelling to the USA to research entrepreneurship opportunities for ex-offenders.
  • Emma Sullivan, a chief executive from Twickenham, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to explore the use of tech in corporate volunteering programmes.
  • Shaherazad Umbreen, from Birmingham, and Head of Customer & Marketing at Central England Co-operative and Shoe Empowerment Officer at www.shaherazad.com, who will be travelling to Iceland and Kuwait to explore approaches to achieving gender parity in the workplace.
  • Karen Leigh Anderson, a business advisor from Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, who will be travelling to the USA to study social enterprises providing employment and training for disadvantaged groups.
  • Aine Graven, a housing association worker from Stockport, who will be travelling to the USA to explore approaches to developing social economies.
  • Beth Murray, a charity director from Chingford, who will be travelling to the USA to study approaches to creating an entrepreneurial culture within charities.
  • Eifion Williams, a social business advisor from Wrexham, who will be travelling to France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and The Netherlands to investigate co-operatively managed dual currency systems.
  • Siofra Caherty, a designer and educator from Belfast, who will be travelling to Canada, Denmark, Switzerland and the USA to study 'zero waste' initiatives.
  • Connor Friesen, from London, and a grants officer at J.P. Morgan Chase Foundation, who will be travelling to Denmark, France, Germany and Sweden to research support for refugee entrepreneurs.
  • Michael Simpson, from London, and the Head of Programme and Partnerships at a social enterprise, who will be travelling to the USA to research new models of support for social enterprises.
  • Samantha Blackburn, from Preston, and the Founder and Director of a community interest company, who will be travelling to Australia and Cambodia to explore opportunities for disabled people to develop careers in creative industries.
  • David Robinson, a charity Chief Executive from Bournmoor, County Durham, who will be travelling to the USA to explore new models of income generation for charities.
  • Karis Theophane, an entrepreneur from London, who will be travelling to Ghana, Canada and the USA to gain insights into the barriers faced by BAME women in business leadership.
  • Caroline Malcolm, a social entrepreneur from Edinburgh, who will be travelling to India and the USA to research upcycling as a mechanism for sustainable living.
  • Jem Stein, a social entrepreneur from London, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to research approaches to scaling up social enterprises.

Environment, Conservation and Sustainable Living

  • Rebecca Walker, a senior environmental specialist from Norwich who will be travelling to South Africa, Canada and the USA to research commercial wildlife watching regulation aimed at protecting marine mammals.
  • Sarah Brown, a marine planning manager from Appin, Scotland, who will be travelling to the USA to investigate public and stakeholder engagement in marine spatial planning.
  • Alec Taylor, from Cardiff, and Marine Governance Programme Manager at WWF, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand the USA to investigate approaches to the protection of marine areas. Alec's Fellowship is supported by the Lloyd George Foundation.
  • Sophie Eastwood, a charity worker from Edinburgh, who will be travelling to Australia to explore approaches to engaging young people to take action on climate change.
  • Pete Boardman, an entomologist from Warrington, who will be travelling to Namibia and the USA to research the taxonomy, identification, and distribution of African craneflies. Pete's Fellowship is supported by the Frank Jackson Foundation.
  • Claire Gwinnett, an associate professor in forensic and crime science from Manchester, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and the USA to research microplastic pollution.
  • Andrew Ormerod, a botanist from Lostwithiel, Cornwall, who will be travelling to Cameroon, Canada and the USA to explore new approaches to plant selection and breeding.
  • Joel Rees-Jones, a technical specialist in fisheries from Wrexham, who will be travelling to Canada, New Zealand and the USA to investigate strategies for protecting salmon stocks. Joel's Fellowship is supported by the Lloyd George Foundation.
  • Liam McAleese, from Ambleside, Cumbria, and Head of Strategy and Partnerships at Lake District National Park Authority, who will be travelling to Norway and Sweden to research sustainable upland farming. Liam's Fellowship is supported by the Frank Jackson Foundation.
  • David Tudor, a marine scientist from London, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and Tonga to explore strategies to prevent plastic pollution entering the oceans.

Health and Wellbeing

  • Dale Mason, a firefighter from Ipswich, who will be travelling to Ireland and the USA to study best practice in emergency rescue and medical response.
  • Kathy Birch, a hospice worker from Epsom, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and Singapore to investigate approaches to extending the scope and reach of palliative care.
  • Daniella de Block Golding, a junior doctor from London, who will be travelling to South Africa and the USA to investigate new treatments for people at high risk of contracting HIV.
  • Dan Farnworth, an emergency medical technician from Kirkham, Lancashire, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to investigate health and wellbeing support for emergency services personnel.
  • Belinda Mason, a police sergeant from Northern Ireland, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA to investigate approaches to supporting mental health in police officers.
  • Amanda Richardson, a charity chief executive from Steeple Claydon, Buckinghamshire, who will be travelling to Australia to investigate early intervention for children at risk of cerebral palsy.
  • Shweta Gidwani, an emergency medicine consultant from London, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to research wellbeing support for doctors.
  • Chantelle Tomlinson, a trainee in neonatal medicine from Sheffield, who will be travelling to Canada and Japan to investigate approaches to improving outcomes for premature babies.
  • Chloe Reeves, a consultancy director from St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, who will be travelling to Sweden and the Netherlands to explore new models of integrated health and social care.
  • Abigail Walker, an ear, nose, and throat doctor from London, who will be travelling to the USA to investigate treatments for adults and children with facial pain.

Horticulture

This category is supported by the Royal Horticultural Society.

  • Joshua Sparkes, a gardener from Rye, East Sussex, who will be travelling to Belgium, Sweden, the Netherlands and the USA to explore sustainable, organic approaches to soil management in public gardens.
  • Beth Stewart, a market gardener from London, who will be travelling to the USA to research resilient community food growing projects.

Mental Health - Community Based Approaches

This category is supported by the Mental Health Foundation.

  • Karen Treisman, a clinical psychologist from London, who will be travelling to the USA to research approaches to integrating trauma-informed principles at an organisational level.
  • Hayley Thompson, a senior nurse from Portishead, Somerset, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to explore support for families of veterans affected by PTSD.
  • Lucy Duggan, from Bristol, and the director of a community interest company, who will be travelling to Japan and the USA to explore eco-therapeutic approaches to community mental-health promotion.
  • Marcus Gardiner, a management consultant from Bath, who will be travelling to the USA to explore the use of digital technology to support good mental health in the workplace.
  • Tod Sullivan, a mental health ambassador from Lowestoft, Suffolk, who will be travelling to the USA to research trauma-informed approaches to supporting good mental health.
  • Debbie Humberstone, a project manager from Axminster, Devon, who will be travelling to Australia and Finland to explore early-intervention initiatives promoting mental wellbeing in young people.
  • Martin Lally, a police sergeant from Wigan, who will be travelling to Australia, Canada and the USA to research peer support for police officers who have experienced trauma.
  • Luke Skelton, a psychiatry doctor from London, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to explore the impact of the Health Care Homes model on patients' mental health.
  • Allison O'Kelly, a nurse from Callington, Cornwall, who will be travelling to Australia to investigate support for LGBT people with dementia.
  • Clare Canning, a mental health professional from Totton, Hampshire, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to explore mindfulnesss interventions for people who self harm.
  • Sarah Bates, a charity executive lead from London, who will be travelling to Hong Kong and Japan to investigate support for people bereaved by suicide.
  • Shane Ryan, a charity chief executive from Twickenham, who will be travelling to South Africa and the USA to explore approaches to developing positive narratives around masculinity within black and other minority ethnic communities.
  • Natalia Clifford, a public health consultant from London, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to explore approaches to fostering healthy online behaviours for children.
  • Sabrina Kamayah, from London, and a policy officer at the Care Quality Commission, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and the USA to explore models aimed at improving access and intervention to care and treatment, for Black and Minority Ethnic communities experiencing mental health difficulties.
  • Cheryl-lee Brown, from Livingston, and Chief Executive at Midlothian Sure Start, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to investigate trauma-informed early years intervention. Cheryl-lee's Fellowship is supported by The Band Trust.
  • Patrick Vernon, a charity director from London, who will be travelling to Barbados, Jamaica and the USA to explore arts and cultural interventions aimed at supporting good mental health in African and Caribbean communities.
  • Angela El-Zeind, a performing arts lecturer from Hove, who will be travelling to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA to explore comedy improvisation as a means of treating anxiety.
  • Charlie Morley, an author and mindfulness teacher from London, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to study mindfulness-based treatments for veterans with PTSD.
  • Alex Holmes, an anti-bullying campaigner from Radlett, Hertfordshire, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and Norway to explore approaches to increasing happiness and wellbeing in schools.
  • Laura Beswick, a Mental Health First Aid trainer from London, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to research mental health and wellbeing programmes for university students.

Migration - Living Well Together

This category is supported by The Linbury Trust.

  • Kierna Corr, a nursery teacher from Coalisland, County Tyrone, who will be travelling to Sweden and Germany to research approaches to supporting children from migrant families in preschool.
  • Bekele Woyecha, a community organiser from Croydon, who will be travelling to Canada to explore the role of civil society in welcoming and supporting refugees.
  • Amanda Walters, a community organiser from London, who will be travelling to Brazil and the USA to study approaches to organising in support of migrant workers' rights.
  • Fuad Mahamed, from Bristol, and the founder and chief executive of a community housing organisation, who will be travelling to Belgium, France, Germany, Kenya, The Netherlands and Uganda to explore alternative systems of refugee integration.
  • Jessica Smith, a health and social care worker from Stockport, who will be travelling to Denmark, Norway and Sweden to explore the role of general practices in supporting refugees and asylum seekers.
  • Lorna Gledhill, a charity campaigner from Leeds, who will be travelling to Germany, Greece, Spain and the Netherlands to explore housing as a tool for refugee integration.
  • Tim Holtam, from Brighton, and the Founder and Director of Brighton Table Tennis Club, who will be travelling to Greece, Italy and Jordan to explore the integration of refugees through sport.
  • Kerry Tuhill, a community arts worker from Blackburn, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to explore community projects facilitating the creation of social enterprises with refugees and asylum seekers.
  • Abdullah Geelah, a researcher from Sheffield, who will be travelling to Canada, South Africa and the USA to explore the role of mosques in shaping cohesive identities among western Muslims.
  • Emma Cleave, an education worker from London, who will be travelling to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA to explore training for teachers working with children who speak English as an additional language.

New Approaches to Social and Affordable Housing

This category is supported by the National Housing Federation.

  • Ella Hancock, a charity worker from Croydon, who will be travelling to Sweden, the Netherlands and the USA to research affordable social cohousing for young people.
  • Nic Bliss, a housing policy worker from Birmingham, who will be travelling to Canada to investigate approaches to growing the co-operative housing sector.
  • Esther Sample, a charity worker from London, who will be travelling to Canada, Finland and Sweden to research secure housing for homeless young women.
  • Catriona Kinghorn, an architect from Inverness, who will be travelling to Japan and the USA to explore the use of timber in producing low-energy homes.
  • Gita Prasad, a health and social care commissioner from Norwich, who will be travelling to Denmark and the Netherlands to investigate new models of supported independent living for older people. Gita's Fellowship is supported by The Lady Hind Trust.
  • Caroline Gore-Booth, a charity worker from Hull, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to investigate support for disadvantaged people linking housing with training and employment.
  • Rosie Hervey, an architect from London, who will be travelling to Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands to explore intergenerational cohousing models.
  • Maureen Corcoran, a housing association board member from London, who will be travelling to Germany to explore alternative approaches to the provision of affordable housing through the private rental sector.
  • Anna Hope, a housing consultant from Bristol, who will be travelling to Australia, Germany, New Zealand and the Netherlands to explore new models of bidding for land in support of affordable housing.
  • Tom Follett, a policy worker from Bristol, who will be travelling to Germany, Spain and the USA to research the development of cooperative housing.

Nursing and Allied Health Professions

This category is supported by the Burdett Trust for NursingFoNS Centre for Nursing Innovation  and the Royal College of Nursing.

  • Tamsin Longley, an occupational therapist from London, who will be travelling to Australia, Canada and the USA to research support for individuals affected by Cancer Related Cognitive Changes.
  • Michael Mawhinney, a doctoral research student from Oxford, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to investigate new models of care for patients receiving oral chemotherapy.
  • Joanne Brooke, a nurse and psychologist from Northfleet, Kent, who will be travelling to Australia, New Zealand and the USA to investigate approaches to identifying and supporting prisoners with dementia from culturally diverse backgrounds.
  • Anne Mills, a nurse, midwife and specialist public health practitioner from Sturminster Newton, Dorset, who will be travelling to Canada to explore approaches to embedding public health skills into nursing practice.
  • Allison Sykes, a senior nurse from Newcastle upon Tyne, who will be travelling to Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA to research best practice in high level isolation units.
  • Chris Allen, a consultant clinical psychologist from Buckingham, who will be travelling to the USA to explore the use of transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy with patients with long term physical health conditions.
  • Cathryn Britton, a senior lecturer in Midwifery from York, who will be travelling to Australia and New Zealand to explore best practice in midwifery education.
  • Michelle Tennyson, an allied health professional from Belfast, who will be travelling to Belgium, Germany and the USA to research public involvement in shaping health services.
  • Hayley Gorton, a researcher and pharmacist from Manchester, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to investigate the role of community pharmacies in suicide prevention.
  • Karen Leach, a health and social care service manager from Guernsey, who will be travellling to New Zealand and the USA to study models of health and social care which promote personal purpose and meaning.
  • Isabell MacInnes, a nurse from the Isle of South Uist, Scotland, who will be travelling to Canada, France and the USA to investigate strategies for tackling Lyme disease.

Science, Technology and Innovation

  • Heidi Gardner, a PhD researcher from Aberdeen, who will be travelling to Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore and the USA to explore how scientists can communicate with the public through blogging.
  • Usman Shah, a social entrepreneur from London, who will be travelling to India, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates and the USA to investigate approaches to inspiring south Asians into STEM careers.
  • Leisa Nichols-Drew, a forensic scientist and university lecturer from Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, who will be travelling to Australia and Canada to investigate best practice in forensic science approaches to knife crime investigations.
  • Samantha Donnellan, a post-doctoral research associate from Liverpool, who will be travelling to South Africa and the USA to investigate new approaches to testing drug treatments for multi-drug resistant TB.
  • Derek Macallan, a university professor from New Malden, Surrey, who will be travelling to Australia to explore new models of HIV treatment.
  • Maxine Mackintosh, a data science researcher from London, who will be travelling to Kenya, Uganda and the USA to explore how big data can be used to improve public health.
  • Jenny Ray, a speech and language therapist from London, who will be travelling to the USA to investigate technological advancements aimed at maximising children's communication skills.
  • Margaret Rose Cunningham, a research fellow from Alexandria, West Dunbartonshire, who will be travelling to Australia and Japan to explore approaches to improving attainment in STEM education through interschool collaborative learning across continents.
  • Laura Randall, from St Albans, and Associate Head of Child Safety Online for the NSPCC, who will be travelling to Canada, Russia and the USA to investigate support for professionals to identify children at risk of online abuse.
  • Ikem Nzeribe, an entrepreneur from Manchester, who will be travelling to Nigeria to explore culturally relevant ways of teaching computing in African-Caribbean communities.
  • Elaine Manton, a school STEM Coordinator from Warrington, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to explore approaches to inspiring girls to pursue STEM careers.

Supporting Vulnerable Children following Bereavement

This category is supported by Winston's Wish.

  • Sarah Helton, a special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) teacher from South Pethertom, Somerset, who will be travelling to Denmark, Norway and the USA to investigate best practice in supporting bereaved children who have SEND.
  • Elaine Roub, a bereavement care worker from Belfast, who will be travelling to New Zealand and the USA to study approaches to creating bereavement support communities with refugee children and their families.
  • Georgina Hardy, a social worker from Folkestone, Kent, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to research support for bereaved children in care.

Young People (Aged 18-25)

  • Samantha Jury-Dadaa Southwark Councillor from London, who will be travelling to the USA to research support for women and girls affected by gang violence.
  • Sam Ward-Hardy, a workshop facilitator and musician from Crook, County Durham, who will be travelling to Brazil to research Brazilian carnival arts and their communities.
  • Katy McLeod, a theatre producer from London, who will be travelling to the USA to research alternative fundraising strategies for theatres.
  • Kate Wyver, a freelance journalist from London, who will be travelling to Kenya, Uganda and India to study approaches to teaching consent in sex education in schools.
  • Zain Dada, a writer, community organiser and producer from London, who will be travelling to the USA to study approaches to building sustainable community arts groups.
  • Callum Lynch, a public affairs worker from Glasgow, who will be travelling to Sweden and the USA to explore approaches to enabling young people in care to have their voice heard.
  • Jaccaidi Hypolite-Dyer, from London, who will be travelling to Barbados, Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago to study activism by young women aimed at tackling violence against women.
  • Olivia Hylton-Pennant, from London, and an officer at Cambridge University Students' Union, who will be travelling to the USA to explore approaches to improving educational attainment among black students.
  • Charlie Parker, a journalist from Twickenham, who will be travelling to Estonia and Iceland to study approaches to using digital communication as a tool for democratic engagement.

Open

  • Misba Khan, an accounts officer from Manchester, who will be part of an all-female expedition to the North Pole, with the final 100km travelled by ski.
  • Stuart Williams, a firefighter from Falmouth, who will be travelling to the USA to investigate joined-up emergency services responses.
  • Emma Peasgood, a senior social work practitioner from Kent, who will be travelling to Finland and Sweden to investigate practices aimed at increasing inclusion for deaf children.
  • Adnan Ali Khan, from Leeds, who will be travelling to Norway and Sweden to explore opportunities for ex-offenders and approaches to preventing reoffending.
  • Michelle Jones, a researcher from Chelmsford, who will be travelling to Canada to study training for military personnel encountering children in combat zones.
  • Claire Masterton, a police officer from Midlothian, who will be travelling to Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and the USA to research training for police to improve understanding of autism.
  • Lynne Hindmarch, a breakfast club manager from Newcastle upon Tyne, who will be travelling to Canada and the USA to research best practice in school breakfast clubs.
  • Anthony Gunter, a principal lecturer from London, who will be travelling to Jamaica and the USA to investigate community-driven public health based solutions to urban youth violence.
  • Maggie Bolger, from Cardiff, and Senior Learning and Development Business Partner at HM Prison and Probation Service, who will be travelling to the USA to explore approaches to end-of-life care for elderly prisoners.
  • Robyn Skerratt, a chartered town planner from London, who will be travelling to Australia and the USA to explore the connections between the built environment and health and wellbeing.
  • Sue James, a solicitor from London, who will be travelling to Australia and Canada to investigate new models of legal advice for disadvantaged people.
  • Emmanuel Akpan-Inwang, from London, and Director of Lighthouse, an organisation committed to improving outcomes for children in care, who will be travelling to Denmark and Germany to explore the use of social pedagogy in working with vulnerable young people in children's homes.
  • Toby Carr, an architect from London, who will be leading a sea kayaking expedition to explore the northern extremities of the shipping forecast.
  • Annabel Deas, a broadcast journalist from Manchester, who will be travelling to the USA to explore ways in which radio can give a voice to marginalised members of society.
  • Mwansa Phiri, a research analyst from London, who will be travelling to the USA to explore new models of criminal defence aimed at empowering people facing charges and their families.
  • Laurelle Brown, from London, and Strategy and Insight Officer at Barnet Council, who will be travelling to France, Germany and Sweden to research foster carer recruitment and training for adolescents with complex needs.